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Canada-Geographical Divisions

Canada is the second largest country in the world after Russia, but the population of Canada is one of the lowest. Canada is bordered by the North Pacific Ocean to the west and the North Atlantic Ocean to the east and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Canada's population is concentrated in the areas close to the U.S. border, and most of the population lives in Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, and Alberta.

Canada is divided into six geographical regions:

Pacific and Western Mountains:

This region is made up of four land ecozones: the Pacific Maritime coastal strip of mountain, rain forest, and fjord; and the three rugged Cordilleran zones: Montane Cordillera, Boreal Cordillera, and Taiga Cordillera. A fifth ecozone — the Pacific Marine — encompasses Canada’s waters of the Pacific Ocean. The Cordillera is located on the west coast of Canada and includes British Columbia, the Yukon, southwest Alberta and part of North West Territories.
Forestry is the biggest industry in this region. This region also has agriculture and mineral resources. Mining of iron, lead, zinc, silver, copper and nickel takes place here. Fisheries play an important part and the west coast is famous for its salmon.

Central Plains:

This consists of two distinct ecozones: the Prairies and the Boreal Plains, which cover much of the three Prairie Provinces, as well as parts of British Columbia and the Northwest Territories. The term prairie refers to the prairie grasses that grow wild in and Alberta, Saskatchewan Manitoba. The Prairies ecozones has been greatly altered through agriculture development.

Boreal Shield:

This is the area completely surrounding the Hudson's Bay in the shape of a horseshoe. It consists of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario and Labrador. With its myriad rivers and lakes, this region accounts for 22 percent of Canada’s freshwater surface area. The Boreal Shield has a rich supply of minerals and lumber plays a major role in this region.

Mixedwood Plains:

It consists of two sectors: Ontario’s southward protruding peninsula, bounded by lakes Ontario, Erie, and Huron, and the long, narrow plains along the St. Lawrence in Quebec. The Thousand Islands are the point of division between the sectors. This region has navigable waterways, fertile soils, and a relatively mild climate.
This region contains Canada’s largest urban concentration, and also a major share of its industrial and agricultural base.


This region has an 11,200-kilometres-long shoreline along with wooded uplands and fertile lowlands. It consists of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, bound together by fisheries and forests. This ecozone extends to parts of Quebec: the Appalachian highlands and the Gaspé Peninsula. Offshore lays the Atlantic and Northwest Atlantic Marine ecozones, which the Maritime Provinces and Quebec share with Newfoundland.
Iron, zinc, and gold are a few of the minerals found the Atlantic Region. Discovery of oil under the ocean floor here has boosted the economy of Newfoundland and Labrador and provided opportunities for employment.

The Northern Region:

It is located in the Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Northern Quebec and the farthest tip of Labrador and Newfoundland.
This region has an 11,200-kilometres shoreline. Although winters are cold here, in summer flowers bloom and fill this region with beauty. Most of the Arctic region is now accessible by road and air and have necessary amenities and services.

Major Cities


The provincial capital of Ontario, it is the city with the highest population in Canada. Toronto ranks amongst the top financial centers in the world. It is close to the U.S. border and Niagara Falls. Major attractions: CN Tower, the Casa Loma, the Royal Ontario Museum, and the Art Gallery of Ontario, the Toronto International Film Festival.


It is situated in the province of Quebec and the second largest city of Canada. In earlier times Montreal used to be the centre of Canada’s the financial and industrial activity. Here you can see Canada’s rich French heritage, especially in Old Montreal.
Major attractions: Montréal Botanical Garden, Mount Royal, Point-a-Calliere Museum, and Montreal Biodome.


Vancouver is ranked in the category of the most habitable cities in the world. It is surrounded by water and mountains and has a mild weather. It has been the venue for many conferences as well as the Winter Olympics 2010. This city is a primary seaport situated in British Columbia and one of the top industrial centers in Canada.
Major attractions: ski resort Whistler / Blackcomb, Stanley Park, Vancouver Art Gallery, Granville Island, Vancouver Aquarium, Grouse Mountain, Robson Street, Beaches.


Ottawa is the national capital of Canada. It is located in Ontario beside the Ottawa River which separates it from Quebec.
Major attractions: the Parliament Building, Château Laurier, the Rideau Canal, National Gallery of Canada, the Canadian Museum of Civilization, ByWard Market, Gatineau Park, the Tulip Festival.


It is the largest city in the province of Alberta. It is an important urban centre. Calgary has the major share of Canada’s oil industry and is one of Canada’s wealthiest cities. It is at the foot of the majestic Rocky Mountains, close to the famous skiing town of Banff.
Major attractions: The Calgary Stampede, The Core Shopping Centre (formerly Calgary Eaton Centre/TD Square), Eau Claire Market, Calgary Zoo, Telus Convention Centre, Devonian Gardens, Heritage Park Historical Village , Canada Olympic Park.